Measuring Preparedness

Community
Planning & Engagement Coordination

National
Confidence Interval
5.4 - 6.1
National
Preparedness Level
5.8

What it Means

Actions to develop and maintain supportive relationships among government agencies, community organizations, and individual households; and to develop shared plans for responding to disasters and emergencies.

How we Measure it

Community Planning & Engagement Coordination Sub-domains

cscc: cross sector community collaboration

arp: children other at risk populations

mvde: management of volunteers during emergencies

scc: social capital cohesion

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The coordination necessary to engage community-based organizations and social networks through collaboration among agencies primarily responsible for providing direct health-related services; partners include public health, healthcare, business, education, and emergency management in addition to federal and nonfederal entities necessary to facilitate an effective and efficient return to routine delivery of services.

Measure
Measure Description
Source
m87
Is the state-level health department accredited by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB)?
Measure Name

M87

Measure Source

Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB), Health Departments in e-PHAB

Data date(s)

2014 - 2016

Limitations

Accreditation is still in the early stages and the preparedness component is still being refined. Health departments "in process" are not considered as accredited in this measure.

m501
Percent of population served by a comprehensive public health system (scope of services and inter_organizational connectedness)
Measure Name

M501

Measure Source

National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems (NLSPHS), National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and Area Resource File (ARF) data analyzed by PMO and affiliated personnel.

Data date(s)

2012, 2014 & 2016

Limitations

This measure is not easily estimated.

m9031
Percentage of hospitals that participate in Health Care Coalitions supported through the federal Hospital Preparedness Program of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.
Measure Name

M9031

Measure Source

Division of National Healthcare Preparedness Programs in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

This measures does not provide information about the intensity of cooperation or quality of the coalition.

m9032
Percentage of emergency medical service agencies that participate in Health Care Coalitions supported through the federal Hospital Preparedness Program of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.
Measure Name

M9032

Measure Source

Division of National Healthcare Preparedness Programs in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

This measures does not provide information about the intensity of cooperation or quality of the coalition.

m9033
Percentage of emergency management agencies that participate in Health Care Coalitions supported through the federal Hospital Preparedness Program of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.
Measure Name

M9033

Measure Source

Division of National Healthcare Preparedness Programs in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

This measures does not provide information about the intensity of cooperation or quality of the coalition.

m9034
Percentage of local health departments that participate in Health Care Coalitions supported through the federal Hospital Preparedness Program of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.
Measure Name

M9034

Measure Source

Division of National Healthcare Preparedness Programs in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

This measures does not provide information about the intensity of cooperation or quality of the coalition.

Actions to protect individuals specifically recognized as at-risk in the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (i.e., children, senior citizens, and pregnant women), and those who may need additional response assistance including those who have disabilities, live in institutionalized settings, are from diverse cultures, have limited English proficiency (or are non-English-speaking), are transportation disadvantaged, have chronic medical disorders, and have pharmacological dependency; all of whom require additional needs before, during, and after an incident in the functional areas of communication, medical care, maintaining independence, supervision, and transportation.

Measure
Measure Description
Source
m52
State requires all child care providers to have a plan for children with disabilities and those with access and functional needs
Measure Name

M52

Measure Source

Save the Children, U.S. Report Card on Children in Disasters

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

The measure does not include nonlicensed providers. The measure does not reflect whether the plan has been tested or reviewed in the past two years or whether there are effective partnerships underpinning the plan.

m53
Hazard plan for all K-12 schools
Measure Name

M53

Measure Source

Save the Children, U.S. Report Card on Children in Disasters

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

The measure does not reflect how comprehensively the plan may engage partners or truly indicate a state's ability to manage multiple hazards in a school environment for a more robust response. Also, possession of a state plan does not ensure that it has been used or tested within the past two years. There is a lack of definition around what entails "multiple types of hazards" and which may or may not be appropriate for a state to plan for (accounting for regional differences).

m163
Number of pediatricians, general per 100,000 adolescent population
Measure Name

M163

Measure Source

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

Data date(s)

2012 - 2015

Limitations

The measure does not indicate how healthcare facilities and jurisdictions may have mutual aid plans in place to supplement the number of pediatricians in the event of an emergency. Also, BLS and other national data sources on physician supply have been shown to under-count certain types of physicians. Specifically, BLS estimates may differ considerably from the estimates available from state medical licensing boards. These measurement errors in the national BLS data are expected to be relatively consistent across states, and therefore they should not cause significant bias in the Index state and national results.

m164
Number of obstetricians and gynecologists per 100,000 female population
Measure Name

M164

Measure Source

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)

Data date(s)

2012 - 2015

Limitations

Healthcare facilities and jurisdictions may have mutual aid plans in place to supplement the number of obstetricians and gynecologists in the event of an emergency. Also, BLS and other national data sources on physician supply have been shown to under-count certain types of physicians. Specifically, BLS estimates may differ considerably from the estimates available from state medical licensing boards. These measurement errors in the national BLS data are expected to be relatively consistent across states, and therefore they should not cause significant bias in the Index state and national results.

m170
Proportion of a state's children 19 and younger who reside within 50 miles of a pediatric trauma center (including pediatric trauma centers from neighboring states)
Measure Name

M170

Measure Source

American Hospital Association (AHA), AHA Annual Survey of Hospitals data and U.S. Census population data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2011 - 2013

Limitations

The measure reflects a population-adjusted number of pediatric trauma centers, but it does not indicate the number of available pediatric trauma beds or inpatient treatment beds for the care of pediatric patients.

m50
State requires that all childcare providers have a family-child reunification plan
Measure Name

M50

Measure Source

Save the Children, U.S. Report Card on Children in Disasters

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

There is a mix of templates/guidelines aimed at childcare centers/facility types and a variety of public website information intended for families. The target audience is not consistent and providing general information does not constitute having a family reunification plan in place.

m51
State requires that all childcare providers have a plan for evacuating and safely moving children to an alternate site
Measure Name

M51

Measure Source

Save the Children, U.S. Report Card on Children in Disasters

Data date(s)

2013 - 2016

Limitations

There is a mix of templates/guidelines aimed at childcare centers/facility types and a variety of public website information aimed at families. The target audience is not consistent and providing general information is not necessarily an indicator that the childcare facility preparedness plans have identified an adequate alternate site in the event of an emergency evacuation.

The ability to coordinate the identification, recruitment, registration, credential verification, training, and engagement of healthcare, medical, and support staff volunteers to support the jurisdiction’s response to incidents of health significance

Measure
Measure Description
Source
m36
State participates in Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP) Program and has a state volunteer registry
Measure Name

M36

Measure Source

Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), The Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP)

Data date(s)

2014

Limitations

The measure reflects whether a mechanism for a state volunteer registry exists, but not whether it has been managed well (e.g., kept current), leveraged effectively, or used at all during exercises or responses. The measure also may or may not accurately reflect a state's capacity for volunteer surge during emergencies.

m266
Percent of a state's population who live in a county with a Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT)
Measure Name

M266

Measure Source

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Citizen Corps Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT), and U.S. Census data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2012 - 2014

Limitations

The success of volunteer efforts like Citizen Corps depends on strong leadership, support from local and governmental entities and agencies, and the engagement of multiple sectors. As such, the activity levels, outreach, breadth of training, and access to financial support for Citizen Corps efforts and councils will vary from location to location.

m346
Medical Reserve Corps members per 100,000
Measure Name

M346

Measure Source

Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), MRC Units Database and Census Bureau data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2012 - 2014, 2016

Limitations

The MRC is not the only source of health and medical volunteers. Many states have alternate systems of registering, credentialing, and managing health and medical volunteers, including ESAR-VHP (Emergency System for the Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals), and/or have other local, regional, or state-sponsored health and medical teams of volunteers not registered as MRCs. There may also be overlap or integration of these systems (e.g., MRC volunteers registered through ESAR-VHP systems). The measure may over-represent the number of active MRC volunteers and credentials. MRC units vary with regard to how current their registries of volunteers are, how many trainings or exercises volunteers have participated in, and how frequently credentials/licenses are verified.

m176
Proportion of Medical Reserve Corps members who are physicians
Measure Name

M176

Measure Source

Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), MRC Units Database and Census Bureau data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2015 - 2016

Limitations

The measure may over-represent the number of active MRC volunteer physicians and credentials. MRC units vary with regard to how current their registries of volunteers are, how many trainings or exercises volunteers have participate in, and how frequently credentials/licenses are verified.

m179
Percentage of Medical Reserve Corps volunteers who are nurses or advanced practice nurses
Measure Name

M179

Measure Source

Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), MRC Units Database and Census Bureau data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2015 - 2016

Limitations

The measure may over-represent the number of active MRC nurses and their credentials. MRC units vary with regard to how current their registries of volunteers are, how many trainings or exercises their volunteers have participated in, and how frequently they verify volunteers' credentials/licenses.

m186
Percentage of Medical Reserve Corps volunteers who are other health professionals
Measure Name

M186

Measure Source

Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), MRC Units Database and Census Bureau data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2015 - 2016

Limitations

The measure may over-represent the number of active MRC volunteers and their credentials. MRC units vary with regard to how current their registries of volunteers are, how many trainings or exercises their volunteers have participated in, and how frequently they verify volunteers' credentials/licenses.

The community social capital that helps society function effectively, including social networks between individuals, neighbors, organizations, and governments, and the degree of connection and sense of “belongingness” among residents.

Measure
Measure Description
Source
m172
Percentage of residents doing favors for neighbors
Measure Name

M172

Measure Source

Current Population Survey (CPS), Civic Engagement Supplement data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2011 & 2013

Limitations

The measure is self-reported and may be subject to reporting bias; respondents may feel compelled to appear more connected to neighbors than they actually are.

m175
Voting-eligible population highest office turnout rate
Measure Name

M175

Measure Source

United States Election Project, General Election Turnout Rates

Data date(s)

2012, 2014 & 2016

Limitations

No noted limitations. The measure has been used repeatedly in multiple areas to assess social cohesion and, specifically, civic engagement.

m188
Annual adult volunteer rate
Measure Name

M188

Measure Source

Current Population Survey (CPS), Volunteer Supplement data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2012 - 2015

Limitations

The measure may be subject to reporting bias; respondents may be inclined to over-report their rates of volunteerism. In addition, the measure doesn't reflect how often residents volunteer. The sustainability or regularity with which a person (or community) volunteers may translate into a stronger, more resilient community during and following a disaster.

m189
Average volunteer hours per resident per year (15 years old and older)
Measure Name

M189

Measure Source

Current Population Survey (CPS), Volunteer Supplement data analyzed by PMO personnel.

Data date(s)

2012 - 2015

Limitations

The measure may be subject to reporting bias; respondents may be inclined to over-report the number of hours they perform volunteer work. Therefore, the benefits that extend to the rest of a community may not be accurate. In addition, this average may reflect lower numbers in certain communities that actually do have strong social cohesion, such as settings where both parents work full-time and may not have time to volunteer.